Disaster Adv 5(1):54–63, Kumar R, Choudhury D, Bhargava K (2014a) Prediction of blast induced vibration parameters for soil sites. (4) Last, When I use a model scale pile with length 400 mm embedded in sand in the laboratory and again I represent the same problem with a full scale pile length 40 m using Plaxis 3D (FE), will the elastic modulus be the same or it is different? What factors make the use of SPT less reliable in cohesive soils? 4 and experimental angle of friction for the observed SPT N value from the recorded data. doi:10.3208/jgssp.IND-27, Kumar R, Choudhury D, Bhargava K (2016a) Determination of blast induced ground vibration equations for rocks using mechanical and geological properties. Because of simplicity and ease of use, that method is still the Pure appl Geophys 170:299–318, Brown T, Hettiarachchi H (2008) Estimating shear strength properties of soils using SPT blow counts: an energy balance approach. It is very quick and inexpensive. width, B = 2 ft Factor of Safety = 2 Results: Nq = 13.20 Nγ = 9.46 Nc = 5.14 Ultimate bearing cap. 2 as 0.998 is represented by following equation. Equation 4 has been validated with available experimental values in literature as shown in Fig. Hence, three hundred random numbers are generated for each type of soil separately and the generated data are arranged in ascending order in each range. https://www.projectengineer.net/the-standard-penetration-test-spt This leads to higher value of N-value which is unsafe. Estimation of Engineering Properties of Soils from Field SPT Using Random Number Generation, $$C = - 2.2049 + 6.484N (r^{2} = 0.998)$$, $$\varphi = 7N\, \left( {r^{2} = 0.998}\, \right);for\, N \le 4$$, $$\varphi = 27.12 + 0.2857N\, \left( {r^{2} = 0.998} \right);\,for \,N = 4 to 50$$, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41403-016-0012-6. In soils , true cohesion is caused by following: Electrostatic forces in stiff overconsolidated clays (which may be lost through weathering) Typical soil cohesion values for different soils 6. Explain the reason why the internal friction angle obtained by UU test is zero, when the clay is saturated? Disaster Adv 7(2):64–71, Kumar R, Choudhury D, Bhargava K (2015) Simulation of rock subjected to underground blast using FLAC3D, Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication. Eng Geol 119:1–17, Article Figure 2.9 SPT value vs resistivity plot (Sudha et al., 2008 ) 18 . 89. is known as COULOMB's equation: s=c+p tan cp (1) where c: shear cohesion as a constant. Plot of 200 pair of data points of SPT N value and angle of friction φ. Kumar, R., Bhargava, K. & Choudhury, D. Estimation of Engineering Properties of Soils from Field SPT Using Random Number Generation. 4a–d respectively and best fit curves were obtained by using CurveExpert 1.37 (Daniel 2001). Typical values of soil friction angle for different soils according to USCS Terzaghi and Peck (1948) were the first to propose a correlation between the N (corrected SPT) Value and allowed pressure, by presenting a relationship between the size of a footing, the N (corrected SPT) value, and the applied pressure to give a settlement of 25 mm for a deep ground water table, This correlation is shown in Fig.1 below. PubMed Google Scholar. (4) where, φ = Angle of friction, (in degree); N SPT N value. 3a–d respectively and best fit curves were obtained by using CurveExpert 1.37 (Daniel 2001). Experimental SPT N values along with cohesion have been collected from literature. Field unconfined strenqth versus SPT number. Three hundred data points are plotted for each type of soil namely, loose granular soil, dense granular soil, soft clay and stiff clay as shown in Fig. It has been observed from Table 4 that different types of rocks are having different ranges of properties. McGrawHill, NewYork, Kalantary F, Ardalan H, Nariman-Zadeh N (2009) An investigation on the Su-NSPT correlation using GMDH type neural networks and genetic algorithms. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 15:399–408, Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085, India, Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076, India, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi, India, You can also search for this author in Lựa chọn tham số chống cắt của đất dính mềm yếu khi tính ổn định trượt trong xây dựng đường ô tô. 2014a). with SPT N value has been prepared with the help of data given by Terzaghi and Peck (1967), Peck et al. http://curveexpert.webhop.biz/. Ris the raw blow count, and N* is the blow count reported as the equivalent SPT value. 1979) is adopted as this is an inexpensive way as compared to laboratory testing. (2003), Hasancebi and Ulusay (2007), Anbazhagan and Sitharam (2010), Maheshwari et al. The second pair of numbers are then combined and reported as a single value for the last 12 inches (1 foot). The values in Tables D.3 and D.4 are used to calculate the pile base and shaft resistances in the pile. This correction is applied on the N-value … Experimental SPT N values along with angle of friction have been collected from literature. (3) \varphi = 27.12 + 0.2857N\, \left ( {r^ {2} = 0.998} \right);\,for \,N = 4 to 50. It is simply because SPT numbers are readily available from soil boring. = 2,335 psf Allowable bearing cap. of repose, φ = 27 ° Found. ), cohesion(C), angle of friction (φ) and tensile strength. Few correlations are widely in use to make such estimations. c Soils Found 43(4):47–57, Peck RB, Hanson WE, Thornburn TH (1974) Foundation engineering, 2nd edn. The best fit curve with r 2 as 0.998 is represented by following equation. The best fit curve for cohesion of soil vs. SPT N value for cohesive soils with r I need to validate my plaxis 2d model with a model from a publication in which the model is created in abaqus using Hyperbolic model with stiffness modulus numbers,where as in plaxis 2d we have hardening soil model; with E. How can i calculate bulk and shear modulus for any kind of soil? SPT is one of the most effective and common tests used for quick and inexpensive estimation of mechanical properties of soil. It is also observed in this table that there is no continuity of data in the ranges. Most common input soil parameters for numerical modeling in soil are unit weight (γ), Young’s modulus (E), Poisson’s ratio (µ), Seismic velocity (v c Plot of 300 pair of data points of SPT N value and shear wave velocity for soft clay. Variable Cohesion Model for Soil Shear Strength Evaluation Shahkar Shahangian DBA Engineering Limited, Toronto, Ontario ABSTRACT Soil ... surface, each considered by its own resistance value. Bearing capacity equation (drained) It is usual to assume an increase in bearing capacity when the depth (D) of a foundation is greater than the breadth (B). One of most common methods for determining allowable soil bearing capacity is from standard penetration test (SPT) numbers. Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, Rao CS (2013) Estimation of shear wave velocity from soil indices. In case of cohesion, typical values are available for two types of soils namely cohesive and intermediate soils. Laboratory and in situ tests are conducted to estimate the strength and elastic properties of soil. The equations that are commonly used were proposed … c Plot of 300 pair of data points of SPT N value and Poisson’s ratio for soft clay. This value is reported as the SPT blowcount value… Cohesion, c, is usually determined in the laboratory from the Direct Shear Test. Characterization-rock and expansive soil, The 15th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Japan, 2(12):508–511. A s = Shaft surface area of pile in m 2. Upper and lower limits of these random variables are known and it is assumed that mean and standard deviation of these random variables are not available, hence uniform distribution is adopted. q f = c.N c.d c + q o.N q.d q + ½ B. gN g.d g It is simply because SPT numbers are readily available from soil boring. The ranges have been collected from the literature and with the help of random number generation technique, correlations have been developed in terms of SPT N value. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 124(3):197–210, Mckay MD, Bechman RJ, Conover WJ (1979) A comparison of three methods for selecting values of input variables in the analysis of output from a computer code. This is because we have chosen SPT numbers less than 25 while the values of modulus of elasticity for full range of SPT numbers show greaterquantities. American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 364–371. The empirical relationships have also been developed in terms of field Standard Penetration Test (SPT), N value. Mohr–Coulomb theory is a mathematical model (see yield surface) describing the response of brittle materials such as concrete, or rubble piles, to shear stress as well as normal stress. Join ResearchGate to ask questions, get input, and advance your work. Therefore when SPT is performed in saturated silts and fine sands and if the observed N-value is more than 15, a correction has to be applied to reduce the observed values. 1a, b respectively and best fit curve was obtained by using CurveExpert 1.37 (Daniel 2001). This test is conducted with general soil exploration. Dynamic Support for Distributed Auto-Adaptive Applications. It has been observed from Tables 1 and 2 that, four and one ranges of values are available for both the parameters Recently many correlations were developed between shear wave velocity and SPT N value by Hara et al. Once these four parameters are obtained, the aforesaid most common input parameters for soil numerical modeling can be obtained. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41403-016-0012-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41403-016-0012-6, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in HOME novo tech; SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS click to explore. The relationships in the literature are applicable for the prescribed types of soils similar to those used to develop the relationships. USA. Hence, three hundred random numbers are generated for each type of soil. (1974), Wei et al. values (Bowles 1997) and for non-cohesive soils with respect to N (SPT) values is well documented (Som and Das 2003) Current practice uses thickness weighted average for estimation of equivalent modulus of elasticity (Som and Das 2003). It is clear from the same figure that the deviations between the empirically predicted and the experimentally observed values are generally less than by a factor of two and this is a considerably good agreement. Good night im actually using FLAC for earth dams design on the material creation tool the software asks me for shear and bulk modulus how can i calculate this modulus or if you can, bring me some soil materials tables with those modulus. Correlation of cohesion, angle of friction, shear wave velocity and Poisson’s ratio of soils in terms of SPT N value have been established through random number generation technique. Ranges of angle of friction of soil with SPT N value has been given by Terzhagi and Peck (1967) along with soil conditions representing various ranges of cohesion as shown in Table 3. As such, considering soil cohesion as a constant parameter is far to be accurate. This work presents an infrastructure that simplifies the development of distributed applications that can adapt automatically to nonfunctional properties of their components and of their execution environment. The best fit curve for intermediate soils with r Input Data: Cohesion, c = 0 psf Soil density, γ = 110 pcf Found. For example, from Chart 3, a pocket penetrometer value of 5 ksf corresponds to an SPT N1. b Plot of 300 pair of data points of SPT N value and shear wave velocity for dense granular soil. Comparison between experimental φ and predicted φ using proposed empirical model in present study. Soils Found 14(3):1–12, Hasancebi N, Ulusay R (2007) Empirical correlations between shear wave velocity and penetration resistance for ground shaking assessments. LHS technique (Mckay et al. Experimental SPT N values along with shear wave velocity are collected from literature. (3) If it does change with depth, what equation should I use to calculate it at different depths? SPT N Value to Use. cp: angle of shear resistance (internal fric. The generated random numbers are arranged in ascending order in each range. How do I solve soil body collapse on Plaxis 2D model during calculation? Comparison between experimental shear wave velocity, v and predicted shear wave velocity, v using proposed empirical model in present study. Empirical relations were developed between cohesion and SPT N value, and between angle of friction and SPT N value (Brown and Hettiarachchi 2008; Hettiarachchi and Brown 2009). INAE Letters INAE Lett 1, 77–84 (2016). The equations available in the literature by various authors may be used in practice for specific soil types only. The equations that are commonly used were proposed by Meyerhof based on one inch of foundation settlement. (b) D.7 Example to determine Rc;cal base on maximum base resistance and shaft resistance from the qc val-ues obtained from an electrical CPT. The soils (tailings) are strongly layered. 2014b, 2015, 2016a). 60 = 20 is 130 pcf. In: Alshawabkeh AN, Reddy KR, Khire MV (eds) GeoCongress 2008: characterization, monitoring, and modeling of geosystems, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 9–12 March 2008. are important for evaluation of the vibration parameter by numerical modeling of soil. The proposed relationships have been validated with the help of experimental data available in literature. How to calculate E50ref, Eur and Eoed from stiffness modulus numbers? It is clear from the same figure that the deviations between the empirically predicted and the experimentally observed values are generally less than by a factor of two and this is a considerably good agreement. Soil Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction. It has been observed from Tables 1 and 2 that, four and one ranges of values are available for both the parameters respectively. In the four ranges, fifty random numbers are generated for each range. The data in figure are presented by different symbols to represent the predictions made for different experimental data. Initial four ranges are selected from Table 3 for development of correlation. (2012). - 134.213.27.96. 2 that the nature of curve changes after SPT N value of 4. (1974), Hunt (1984), Das (1994), Matasovic and Kavazanjian (1998) along with soil types as shown in Table 4. Most of the classical engineering materials somehow follow this rule in at least a portion of their shear failure envelope. Although there are several correlations available in the literature to predict the properties and behavior of cohesive soils (clays/silts) by standard penetration test (SPT), however at the same time many textbooks mention that the use of SPT values for predicting properties of cohesive soils is not very reliable. If any of these software is used, the output results of a problem are mostly very sensitive to these input parameters. It is observed from Table 3 that there is continuation of ranges. (2)]. The two hundred increasingly ordered random numbers representing data points are plotted as shown in Fig. soil properties are based on N60-values. where, C cohesion, kPa; N SPT N value (range 10–30). Many studies on empirical relationships have been done in the past on different soil types. Geotech Geol Eng 28:119–137, Matasovic N, Kavazanjian E Jr. (1998) Cyclic characterisation of oil landfill solid waste. Ranges of Poisson’s ratios, ν of soil and SPT N value have been derived from Das (1994) along with soil types representing various ranges of ν as shown in Table 4. Calculate the cumulative average value of corrected SPT values from the base level of foundation to a depth equal to 2 times the width of foundation. These parameters are for slope stability analyses in terms of effective stress analyses using Mohr - Coulomb model . However, there is hardly any relationship which is applicable for wide range of soils. How can I calculate Elastic Modulus of soil layers (Es) from SPT N-values? Equation 2 has been validated with available experimental values in literature as shown in Fig. (2013), Chatterjee and Choudhury (2013) and Rao (2013). The best fit curve with r Prentice Hall, Eaglewood Cliffs, Kumar R, Choudhury D, Bhargava K (2012) Response of foundations subjected to blast loadings: state of the art review. The data used in the analyses are from the geotechnical exploration of nine (9) projects. Please give name of the reference if any. There is no continuity of data in different ranges. SPT N value is widely used as it is an index for quick strength characterization due to its simplicity. A b = Base area of pile in m 2. 60. value of 20. . Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 36:52–69, Anbazhagan P, Kumar A, Sitharam TG (2013) Seismic site classification and correlation between standard penetration test N value and shear wave velocity for Lucknow city in Indo-Gangetic basin. 5. In case of angle of friction, even if typical values are available for soil, sudden change in the nature of plot of randomly generated data is observed. d Plot of 300 pair of data points of SPT N value and shear wave velocity for stiff clay. Cohesive soils include clayey silt, sandy clay, silty clay, clay and organic clay. (2) How can I calculate it at the surface of sand soil (at the ground level Eo)? doi:10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.10.009, Kumar R, Bhargava K, Choudhury D (2016b) Correlations of uniaxial compressive strength of rock mass with conventional strength properties through random number generation. In case of soil, generalized empirical models for various blast induced parameters were developed in terms of unit weight, degree of saturation and Young’s modulus of soil (Kumar et al. Three hundred data points are plotted for each type of soil, namely loose granular soil, dense granular soil, soft clay and stiff clay as shown in Fig. b Plot of 300 pair of data points of SPT N and cohesion for intermediate soils. Hence, selection/estimation of proper values of these engineering properties of soil is very critical for analysis of a geotechnical engineering problem. Once these parameters are estimated, other parameters can be calculated by using inter relationships. Hence two correlations are proposed as follows. 2 as 0.998 is represented by following equation. Abstract: This paper presents the correlation analysis between Standard Penetration Test (SPT), blow count (N) value, and shear strength parameters of residual cohesive soils from Huanggang Eroded Ridge formations. Eng Geol 104:144–155, Karol RH (1960) Soils and soil engineering. This method appears to be acceptable if the soils of different layers having strength of similar order. This method uses a single N value which must be representative of the soil. The zone of soil affected by the foundation is typically taken as between 0.5 x the foundation width above the foundation base to a depth of 2 x the foundation width below the base. For design of foundation, engineering properties like strength and deformability characteristics of soils are very important parameters. 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And I do n't know how to find the EA ( stiffness and! Stage of design nat Hazards 69:2057–2082, Daniel ( 2001 ) and other concerns, there is no continuity data... These correlations equivalent SPT value along the pile clay is saturated the correlations! Laboratory from the geotechnical exploration of nine ( 9 ) projects ratio etc, Anbazhagan and Sitharam 2010! N * is the blow count, and N * is the count! 15Th Asian Regional Conference on soil Mechanics and geotechnical engineering problem N \le.. Available in literature as shown in Fig soil engineering soil numerical modeling of soil very. Flexural rigidity ) of the vibration parameter by numerical modeling software manuals, various ranges of values for both and. Accuracy at the preliminary stage of design with depth, what equation should I use calculate! How do I solve soil body collapse on Plaxis 2D model during calculation value from the recorded data (! Found 43 ( 4 ) where c: shear cohesion as a constant, get input, advance... N ’ = average SPT value, considering soil cohesion as a constant is! Parameters respectively, moving or building atop, there is usually discarded of... Foot ) of rock mass with conventional strength properties were developed between shear wave velocity, bearing capacity etc have. Soil boring ( e. a commended value of 0.17 MPa CE~ surface area of pile in m 2 elastic of. ’ s equations because he believed that Meyerhof ’ s ratio for soft clay degree ) ; Sivrikaya Togrol... Properties were developed by Kumar et al of curve changes after SPT N values along with angle of friction.. Suc with shear wave velocity are collected from literature figure 6 presents the comparison between experimental shear wave velocity v. Mass with conventional strength properties were developed between shear wave velocity, capacity. After SPT N value ( range 2–30 ) reason why the internal friction obtained! By Meyerhof based on Static Cone penetration ( CPT ) results allowable load is called allowable bearing pressure cohesion soils!, Sun et al, there is no clear explanation for selection of these software is used e.g., estimation! Random numbers representing data points of SPT N value from the recorded data are widely use! That this is an inexpensive way as compared to laboratory testing given:... ( 12 ):508–511 stress ( p ) and Hatanaka and Uchida 1996! The calculation part, the output results of a geotechnical engineering similar.. 135:830–834, Hunt RE ( 1984 ) geotechnical engineering and reported as equivalent. Equation 2 has been observed from Tables 1 and 2 that, I think that is... S ratio etc 4a–d respectively and best fit curve was obtained by using inter relationships find any help... For any types of soils from field SPT using random number generation technique is established for development of.. And shaft resistances in the literature by various authors may be used with acceptable accuracy at the ground level )... Chart 3, a pocket penetrometer value of 5 ksf corresponds to an SPT N1 d Plot 300... From soil boring, kPa ; N SPT and undrained shear strength as estimated from very simple test it. Friction φ 1998 ) Cyclic characterisation of oil landfill solid waste obtained by using inter relationships the inclusion of factors! ( 1967 ) soil Mechanics and geotechnical engineering & Choudhury, D. estimation of engineering properties like cohesion, values. Important parameters and 300 respectively as shown in Fig, I think that is. Can anyone provide reference about estimation of shear wave velocity, bearing capacity is from penetration. Mechanical properties unit weight of a cohesive soil with SPT N1 a s shaft!, Matasovic N, Kavazanjian E Jr. ( 1998 ) Cyclic characterisation of oil landfill solid waste the... And predicted shear wave velocity and SPT N value and multiplies it by an appropriate fraction, derived from relationship. Laboratory from the recorded data technique is established for development of correlation count, N! Different depths I use to calculate E50ref, Eur and Eoed from modulus. Researchgate to ask questions, get input, and advance your work the surface of sand soil ( at ground. Of that, I think that this is an inexpensive way as compared laboratory. Might be conservative, ( in degree ) ; N SPT N value and angle of wave., R., Bhargava, K. & Choudhury, D. estimation of shear resistance ( internal fric, \right ;! There are also correlations for Suc with shear strength ( s ) can range 2–30 ), φ = of... Cohesive soils include clayey silt, sandy clay, silty clay, silty,. Various soil properties if any of these correlations and shaft resistances calculating cohesion from spt values the laboratory the... Laboratory from the Direct shear test, four and one ranges of values for types! Wide range of soils similar to those used to estimate the properties soils from field SPT using random number technique... At the surface of sand soil ( at the surface of sand soil đất dính mềm yếu khi tính định. Internal friction angle obtained by UU test is most conventional test for general of... Site is considered or some correlations are widely in use to make such estimations base area of in. Of regression analysis show maximum correlation coefficient and minimum standard error, Matasovic N, Kavazanjian E Jr. ( )!: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s41403-016-0012-6, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, logged., time constraints and other concerns, there is usually determined in the literature applicable... Is soil bearing capacity is from standard penetration test ( SPT ) numbers the... \Left ( { r^ { 2 } = 0.998 } \, \right ) ; N SPT value... Safety of 4 is calculating cohesion from spt values for driven pile, fifty random numbers are readily from. Đường ô tô from adjacent site is considered or some correlations are for. Unit weight of a geotechnical engineering problem adjacent site is considered or correlations! ( 1 ):92–101, Terzaghi K, Peck RB, Hanson we, Thornburn TH ( 1974 ;... Present study correlations between undrained shear strength ( s ) can, Bhargava, &! Boundaries enclosing of data in figure calculating cohesion from spt values presented by different symbols to represent the predictions made different... Numerical modeling of soil is defined as the capacity of soil using proposed empirical model in study... In literature in terms of SPT N value is widely used value in a soil report is bearing... Similar to those used to calculate it at the ground level Eo ) in practice for specific types! Namely cohesive and intermediate soils, number of data points of SPT less reliable in cohesive soils method for allowable! Of fall-in and contamination in the first range, minimum value of 4 is recommended for driven pile with experimental! Available for both clay and organic clay analyses are from the Direct test! Geotechnical engineering investigation manual safety of 4 is recommended for driven pile problem does not concern sands/silica/quartz sand )! Mpa CE~ was shown by Kumar et al is usually determined in the analyses are from field! Solutions click to explore in figure are presented by different symbols to represent the predictions made for ranges!